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Poverty Reduction - An Effective Means of Population Control : Theory, Evidence and Policy
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Living by our motto, 'Bookseller to the World', we focus on offering as many titles as possible to as many customers as possible. Most of the within books offered within this? An exploratory factor analysis was first performed using SPSS version 20 to determine the suitability of the data for factor analysis [ 82 ]. It was found that almost all the items had significant factor loadings except items 11 0. Structural equation modeling SEM was chosen for the study due to its ability to mitigate problems of measurement errors in relationship studies involving latent variables.
The SEM model is a two-part model, consisting of the measurement and structural models. The measurement model measures the relation between the observed and unobserved variables by providing a link between the scores on the measurement instrument. The structural model, on the other hand, measures the relationship among the unobserved variables by specifying the manner in which a particular latent variable either directly or indirectly influences or causes a change in the values of the other latent variables in the model.
The demographic profile of respondents is given in detail in Table 1. The results indicate that This implies that farmer entrepreneurship is a male-dominated sector, although women are often observed to be more involved in downstream agricultural activities in developing countries.
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This finding is in line with earlier research which found that women are usually disadvantaged in agriculture due to uneven access to land, especially in Asian countries [ 86 , 87 ]. Furthermore, However, the combined age groups of 26—35 and 36—45 constitute the largest percentage, Having many young Chinese engaged in farmer entrepreneurship means that rural-urban migration can be reduced. Married respondents make up This might be due to the fact that agriculture is labor-intensive and may require more labor from family members.
This indicates that access to education in China has improved at the basic level, but much needs to be done at college level. The results of the correlation matrix analysis are reported in S3 Table. The overall fitness of the model is evaluated using the results of the measurement model [ 93 ] in Table 3. The results show how the average variance extracted AVE obtained from the factor analysis is used to measure the convergent validity or the common medium variance of all the constructs. According to the table, all the constructs have values greater than the threshold of 0. The composite reliability CR index, which measures the internal consistency of the constructs, also shows values ranged from 0.
Therefore, the results show that the model fits the data well. For direct measurement of the relationship between the latent variables using standardized estimates, as shown in Fig 1 , all except the economic capabilities have a positive and significant relationship with attitude towards farmer entrepreneurship and the qualitative growth of farmer entrepreneurship.
This implies that although the economic, educational and knowledge capabilities of farm entrepreneurs are important, social-cultural capabilities tend to have a greater effect on the growth of farm entrepreneurial activities. This implies that in order to alleviate rural poverty it is imperative to emphasize the need to promote the qualitative growth of farmer entrepreneurship.
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The tests of hypotheses regarding the three capabilities of farm entrepreneurs, namely, economic capabilities EC , educational and knowledge capabilities EKC , and socio-cultural capabilities SCC are shown in Table 4 below. Based on Table 4 above, it can be seen that except for the effect of the economic capability EC of farm entrepreneurs on attitude towards farmer entrepreneurship ATFE , which is negative but significant, all other variables have shown direct significant and positive effects on attitude towards farmer entrepreneurship growth and the qualitative growth of farmer entrepreneurship.
Further still, it is evident that the qualitative growth of farmer entrepreneurship FEQG has a significant positive effect on rural poverty RP , while attitudes towards farmer entrepreneurship growth ATFE has a significant but negative effect on rural poverty RP. This study assesses the relationship between farmer entrepreneurship and rural poverty alleviation in the Guangxi Province of China. Using a survey sample size of , the paper employed structural equation modeling with AMOS 21, alongside SPSS, to conduct the analysis which tested the relationship between farmer entrepreneurship and rural poverty alleviation in China.
The mediating effect of changes in the perception towards farmer entrepreneurship among rural people is also examined. Three capabilities of farm entrepreneurs—economic capabilities EC , educational and knowledge capabilities EKC and socio-cultural capabilities SCC were used to measure the quality of life of rural respondents on a 5-point Likert scale.
This is followed by the effects of educational and knowledge capabilities, which was also found by Sanz et al. The qualitative growth of farmer entrepreneurship FEQG is also found to have a significant and positive effects on rural poverty RP , and this is in line with the findings of Li et al. However, the effect of attitude towards farmer entrepreneurship growth ATFE on rural poverty RP is negative, although it is significant. This is an indication of existing entrepreneurial opportunities in the rural areas of China for employment in agriculture, which can help reduce youth unemployment.
In conclusion, there is a significant relationship between farmer entrepreneurship and rural poverty alleviation in the Guangxi Province of China. A main policy implication of this study is that the government of China in new attempts to alleviate rural poverty should put more emphasis on rural policies, such as the promotion of farmer entrepreneurship in rural areas. This is because farmer entrepreneurship is a bottom-up and more sustainable approach towards alleviating rural poverty.
There are some limitations and future research directions for this study. First, part of the survey was conducted based on self-reported answers from respondents. It is possible there could be some questions that were not clearly understood and well answered due to challenges encountered during the back-and-forth translation of the questionnaire from English to Chinese. Although care was taken to minimize the occurrence of errors, we suggest that more local people in the study areas should be recruited as data enumerators. Second, in addition to the use of the structural equation modeling, different methods of analysis should be employed to ensure greater robustness of the results.
Third, in spite of the confidence in the findings of the study, the data were only taken from three local communities in the Guangxi Province of China. In the future, data should be taken from other rural communities to obtain provincial sample representativeness in order to reach a generalized conclusion on the relationship between farmer entrepreneurship and rural poverty alleviation in China. The authors are grateful to the Academic Editor and the two anonymous reviewers for their comments and suggestions which have significantly helped to improve this manuscript.
We would also like to thank the Editorial office of American Journal Experts AJE for their assistance in English Language and grammatical editing, as well as formatting of the manuscript. Thanks to the employees of the farmer entrepreneurships we interviewed for participating in this research. Browse Subject Areas? Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field.
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Abstract In recent years, entrepreneurship has been gaining more prominence as a potential tool for solving poverty in developing countries. Introduction Since the turn of the 21 st century, one of the major challenges facing most emerging and transitional economies, including China, is poverty. Understanding rural poverty The concept of poverty is said to be multidimensional in nature and, thus, has various meanings.
Understanding farmer entrepreneurship Entrepreneurship is widely seen as a driver of economic growth in developed and developing counties [ 25 ]. Relationship between farmer entrepreneurship and rural poverty A plethora of literature has examined the issue of entrepreneurship and poverty in developing countries [ 29 — 33 ] but not specifically the relationship between farmer entrepreneurship and rural poverty. Theory and hypotheses development The development of entrepreneurial skills is necessary for farmers if they are to succeed in their farm businesses.
The capability approach CA The capability approach is an approach developed by Amartya Sen that is used in human wellbeing assessment [ 44 ]. Study hypotheses In many developing countries, human skills are widely lacking, and in many cases, people with higher skills remove out of agriculture to other sectors of the economy [ 47 ]. Therefore, we propose that H1a. Based on the above, we hypothesize that H2a. We therefore, hypothesize that H3a.
Link between farmer entrepreneurship growth and poverty alleviation Entrepreneurial activities in China are widespread and the phenomenon is attributed to the expansion of rural industries in the early years of the rural reforms. From the above, we hypothesize that H4a. There is a positive effect of attitude towards farmer entrepreneurship on rural poverty alleviation in China. There is a positive effect of the qualitative growth of farmer entrepreneurship on rural poverty alleviation in China.
Study areas Three rural communities, namely, Baise, Liuzhou and Guilin in Guangxi Province, were purposely chosen for the study because they are regarded as areas with high rates of poverty in western China [ 75 — 78 ]. Survey instrument The data were collected between July and August Sample size and data collection When using structural equation modeling SEM , a higher sample size is preferred [ 81 ].
Method of analysis Confirmatory factor analysis.