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The amazing benefits of being bilingual
It has an unusually large set of vowel sounds—there are around According to WALS, most spoken languages only have between five to six vowel sounds. This is part of the reason that English spelling is fiendishly complicated, because it has inherited five letters for vowels from the Roman alphabet and speakers have to make them work for more than twice that number of sounds. English has some comparatively unusual consonant sounds as well. In fact, these two sounds are generally among the last sounds acquired by children , with some adult varieties of English not using them at all. English grammar is also sometimes unusual.
English uses varying word orders to distinguish between questions and statements—meaning that the subject of the sentence precedes the verb in statements. As noted above, Leslie showed that 7-month-olds are sensitive to the need for point of contact in a pushing scenario. Bates et al. It was not until 24 months of age that children immediately selected the adequate tool, but by 14 months children could do so with some practice.
Across the age range of 10—24 months, children first used tools effectively that were physically attached unbreakable contact in contrast to tools that could be unattached at the contact point breakable contact or when the point of contact needed to be imagined no contact. Children showed. These studies, taken together, paint an interesting developmental scenario.
Although children in habituation paradigms seem to understand the need for point of contact early 5—7 months , they cannot at 10 months apply that knowledge to tool use tasks unless the contact between the tool and the goal is provided in the physical layout of the task: the tool touches the object; the solution is physically situated in the environment itself. Several months later, infants can learn, with a demonstration, to envision the point of contact that is not specified in the visual array, but is invited by the pulling features of the tools. They can see that a hook would work in getting the tool if it is rigid and long enough.
By 24 months, children readily note the pulling potential of unattached tools and can make a choice between available tools on the basis of their adequacy. The research shows that young children have the requisite knowledge in some sense very early on, but they need help in the form of demonstrations to prompt the application of what they know.
During the past 30 years, a great deal has been learned about primitive concepts of biological causality. We concentrate here on the differences between animate and inanimate objects.
Infants learn rapidly about the differences between inanimate and animate: as we have seen, they know that inanimate objects need to be pushed or propelled into motion. Infants as young as 6 months can distinguish animate versus inanimate movements as patterns of lights attached to forces or people Bertenthal, And Spelke has shown that if two people come close together and move away in tandem without touching, 7-months-olds show no surprise; but if two people-sized inanimate objects come together and move without a point of contact, they are perturbed as measured by the habituation paradigm.
For example, Massey and Gelman reported that 3- and 4-year-old children correctly responded when asked if novel objects like an echidna and a statue can move themselves up and down a hill. Despite the fact that the echidna looked less like a familiar animal than did a statue, the children claimed that only the living object could move itself up and down a hill. Similarly, young children in this age range can give sensible answers to questions about the difference between the insides and outsides of animals, machines, and natural inanimate objects; see Figure 4.
These are only a handful of findings from a large body of research that goes a long way to challenge the idea that young children are incapable of considering non-perceptual data in scientific areas. Given that there is a mounting body of evidence showing that youngsters are busy constructing coherent accounts of their physical and biological worlds, one needs to ask to what extent these early competencies serve as a bridge for further learning when they enter school.
An ever-increasing body of evidence shows that the human mind is endowed with an implicit mental ability that facilitates attention to and use of representations of the number of items in a visual array, sequence of drumbeats, jumps of a toy bunny, numerical values represented in arrays, etc. For example, Starkey et al.
Each successive picture showed different household items, including combs, pipes, lemons, scissors, and corkscrews that varied in color, shape, size, and texture and spatial position. Half of the infants saw a series of two-item displays while the other half were shown a series of three-item displays.
When they became bored, their looking times dropped by 50 percent they habituated. At this point, they were then shown displays that alternated between two and three items, and if the displays showed a different number of items from what they had seen before, the infants began to show interest by looking again.
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The only common characteristic within the two-item and three-item displays was their numerical value, so one can say the infants habituated to the set of two or three things and then recovered interest when they were shown a different number of things. The infants could have focused on perceptual attributes of the items such as their shapes, motion, textural complexity, and so on, but they did not. This is an important clue that they are able to process information that represents number at a rather abstract level.
Other researchers have shown that infants pay attention to the number of times a toy rabbit jumps up and down, so long as the number of jumping events they have to keep track of is kept between two and four jumps Wynn, They found that 5-month-old infants used visual expectation see previous section to show that infants are able to distinguish three pictures presented in one location from two pictures in another. Through their surprise or search reactions, young children are able to tell us when an item is added or subtracted from what they expected Wynn, , a, b; Starkey, For example, 5-month-old infants first saw two objects repeatedly; then a screen covered the objects and they watched as an experimenter proceeded to add another object or remove one from the hidden display.
The screen was then removed, revealing one more or one less item than before. Experimental evidence of this kind implies a psychological process that relates the effect of adding or removing items to a numerical representation of the initial display.
A similar line of evidence with preschool children indicates that very young children are actively engaged in using their implicit knowledge of number to attend to and make sense of novel examples of numerical data in their environments; see Box 4. Together, the findings indicate that even young children can actively participate in their own learning and problem solving about number. But just because children have some knowledge of numbers before they enter school is not to say that there is little need for careful learning later.
Early understanding of numbers can guide their entry into school-based learning about number concepts. Successful programs based on developmental psychology already exist, notably the Right Start Program Griffin and Case, Although making the entry levels easier, these early number concepts can also be problematic when it comes to the transitions to higher-level mathematics. Rational numbers fractions do not behave like whole numbers, and attempting to treat them as such leads to serious problems.
We introduced the idea that children come equipped with the means necessary for understanding their worlds when considering physical and biological concepts. It should not be surprising that infants also possess. How do 3- to 5-year old children react when they encounter unexpected changes in the number of items? Before the dialog below, children had been playing with five toy mice that were on a plate; the plate and mice were then covered and the experimenter surreptitiously took away two mice before uncovering the plate Gelman and Gallistel, One, two, three, four, five; no—one, two, three, four.
Uh…there were five, right? They begin at an early age to develop knowledge of their linguistic environments, using a set of specific mechanisms that guide language development. Infants have to be able to distinguish linguistic information from nonlinguistic stimuli: they attribute meaning and linguistic function to words and not to dog barks or telephone rings Mehler and Christophe, By 4 months of age, infants clearly show a preference for listening to words over other sounds Colombo and Bundy, And they can distinguish changes in language.
For example, after being habituated to English sentences, infants detected the shift to a different language, such as Spanish; they did not register shifts to different English utterances Bahrick and Pickens, , which indicates that they noticed the novel Spanish utterances. Figure 4. Young infants learn to pay attention to the features of speech, such as intonation and rhythm, that help them obtain critical information about language and meaning.
As they get older, they concentrate on utterances that share a structure that corresponds to their maternal language, and they neglect utterances that do not. By 6 months of age, infants distinguish some of the properties that characterize the language of their immediate environment Kuhl et al. Around 8—10 months of age, infants stop treating speech as consisting of mere sounds and begin to represent only the linguistically relevant contrasts Mehler and Christophe, For example, Kuhl et al. Mean latencies of initiation of a visual saccade in the direction of the sound for American 2-month-olds listening to French and English sentences.
Such studies illustrate that the learning environment is critical for determining what is learned even when the basic learning mechanisms do not vary.
Young infants are also predisposed to attend to the language spoken by others around them. They are attracted to human faces, and look especially often at the lips of the person speaking. They appear to expect certain types of coordination between mouth movements and speech. When shown videos of people talking, infants can detect the differences between lip movements that are synchronized with the sounds and those that are not. Young children also actively attempt to understand the meaning of the language that is spoken around them. Parents of 1-year-olds report that their children understand much of what is said to them, although there is obviously a great deal of information that children really do not understand Chapman, For example, Lewis and Freedle analyzed the comprehension abilities of a month-old child.
In everyday settings, young children have rich opportunities for learning because they can use context to figure out what someone must mean by various sentence structures and words.